Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

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Prince Philip
Prince Philip in 1992, by Allan Warren
Consort of Queen Elizabeth II
Tenure 6 February 1952 – present
(&000000000000005800000058 years, &0000000000000278000000278 days)
Duke of Edinburgh
Tenure 20 November 1947 – present
(&000000000000006200000062 years, &0000000000000356000000356 days)
Spouse Elizabeth II
Issue
Charles, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
House House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Father Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
Mother Princess Alice of Battenberg
Born 10 June 1921 (1921-06-10) (age 89)
Villa Mon Repos, Corfu, Greece
Signature
Religion Anglican
prev. Eastern Orthodox

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark; June 10, 1921)[1][N 1] is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II.

He was born into the Greek and Danish royal families, but his family was exiled from Greece when he was a child. He was educated in Germany and Scotland at schools run by the German Jewish educator Kurt Hahn. At the age of 18, he joined the British Royal Navy, in which he served during World War II, even though two of his German brothers-in-law fought on the opposing side. After the war, in March 1947, he renounced his titles, adopted the surname Mountbatten from his British maternal grandparents, and used the style "Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten". Later that year, he married Princess Elizabeth, the heir to the British throne. On his marriage, he was granted the style of His Royal Highness and the title of Duke of Edinburgh by his father-in-law King George VI. When Elizabeth became Queen in 1952, Philip left his naval career to act as her consort. His wife made him a Prince of the United Kingdom in 1957. He is Britain's longest-serving consort and the oldest serving spouse of a reigning monarch.[3]

Contents

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[edit] Early life

Philip was born at the Villa Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.[4] He was baptised at St. George's Church at the Palaio Frourio (Old Fortress) in Haddokkos a few days after his birth. His godparents were his paternal grandmother (Queen Olga of Greece) and the Corfu community, represented by Alexander Kokotos, Mayor of Corfu, and Stylianos Maniarizis, Chairman of the Corfu City Council.

Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen and, after long and distinguished service in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten. After visiting London for the memorial, Philip and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).[5]

The war went badly for Greece, and the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, the reigning King Constantine I of Greece, was forced to abdicate, and Prince Andrew, along with others, was arrested by the military government. The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, and five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, and Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life.[6] The British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Saint-Cloud suburb of Paris in a house lent to them by his aunt, Princess George of Greece.[7]

Prince Philip speaks fluent English, German and French. His Greek is rudimentary as his family was exiled from Greece when he was an infant.[8][9] He has stated that he considers himself to be Scandinavian, particularly Danish.[8]

[edit] Youth

[edit] Education

Philip was first educated at an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "rugged, boisterous ... but always remarkably polite" boy.[10] However, in 1928, the Prince was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his grandmother at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor.[11] In the next three years, all his sisters married German noblemen and moved to Germany, his mother was placed in an asylum after being diagnosed with schizophrenia,[12] and his father moved to a small flat in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood.[13] In 1933, Philip was sent to the Schule Schloss Salem in Germany that was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Berthold, Margrave of Baden, which had the "advantage of saving school fees".[14] With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded the Gordonstoun school in Scotland. After two terms at Salem, Philip moved to Gordonstoun.[15] In 1937, his sister, Cecile, her husband (Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse), her two young sons and her mother-in-law were killed in an air crash at Ostend; Philip, then only sixteen years of age, attended the funeral in Darmstadt. The following year, his uncle and guardian George Mountbatten died of bone cancer.

[edit] Naval service

After leaving Gordonstoun in 1939, Prince Philip joined the Royal Navy, graduating the next year from the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, as the top cadet in his course.[16] He was commissioned as a midshipman in January 1940. Philip spent four months on the battleship HMS Ramillies, protecting convoys of the Australian Expeditionary Force in the Indian Ocean, followed by shorter postings on HMS Kent, HMS Shropshire and in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). After the invasion of Greece by Italy in October 1940, he was transferred from the Indian Ocean to the battleship HMS Valiant in the Mediterranean Fleet.[17] Amongst other engagements, he was involved in the Battle of Crete, was mentioned in despatches for his service during the Battle of Cape Matapan, and was awarded the Greek War Cross of Valour.[16] Duties of lesser glory included stoking the boilers of the troop transport ship RMS Empress of Russia.[18]

Prince Philip was promoted to sub-lieutenant after a series of courses at Portsmouth in which he gained the top grade in four out of five sections.[19] In June 1942, he was appointed to the V and W class destroyer and flotilla leader, HMS Wallace, which was involved in convoy escort tasks on the east coast of Britain, as well as the allied invasion of Sicily.[20] Promotion to lieutenant followed on 16 July 1942. In October of the same year, at just 21 years of age, he became first lieutenant of HMS Wallace and one of the youngest first lieutenants in the Royal Navy. In 1944, he moved on to the new destroyer, HMS Whelp, where he saw service with the British Pacific Fleet in the 27th Destroyer Flotilla.[21][22] He was present in Tokyo Bay when the instrument of Japanese surrender was signed. In January 1946, Philip returned to Britain on the Whelp, and was posted as an instructor at HMS Royal Arthur, the Petty Officers' School in Corsham, Wiltshire.[23]

[edit] Marriage

In 1939, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth toured Dartmouth Naval College. During the visit, the Queen and Earl Mountbatten asked Philip to escort the King's two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, who were Philip's third cousins through Queen Victoria, and second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark.[24] Elizabeth fell in love with Philip and they began to exchange letters.[25] Eventually, in the summer of 1946, Philip asked the King for his daughter's hand in marriage. The King granted his request providing any formal engagement was delayed until Elizabeth's twenty-first birthday the following April.[26] In the meantime, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish royal titles, as well as his allegiance to the Greek crown, converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism, and became a naturalised British subject,[N 2] all of which was done by 18 March 1947. Philip adopted the surname Mountbatten from his mother's family. The engagement was announced to the public on 10 July 1947.[27] The day preceding his wedding, King George VI bestowed the style His Royal Highness on Philip, and on the morning of the wedding, 20 November 1947, he was made the Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich of Greenwich in the County of London.[28]

Philip and Elizabeth were married in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey, recorded and broadcast by BBC radio to 200 million people around the world.[29] However, in post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for any of the Duke of Edinburgh's German relations to be invited to the wedding, including Philip's three surviving sisters, each of whom had married German princes, some of them with Nazi connections. After their marriage, the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh took up residence at Clarence House. Their first two children were born: Prince Charles in 1948 and Princess Anne in 1950.

Philip was keen to pursue his naval career, though aware that his wife's future role as queen would eventually eclipse his ambitions. Nevertheless, Philip returned to the navy after his honeymoon, at first in a desk job at the Admiralty, and later on a staff course at the Naval Staff College, Greenwich.[16] From 1949, he was stationed in Malta, after being posted as the First Lieutenant of the destroyer HMS Chequers, the lead ship of the 1st Destroyer Flotilla in the Mediterranean Fleet.[30] In July 1950, he was promoted to lieutenant commander and given command of the frigate HMS Magpie.[31] He was promoted to commander in 1952,[16] but his active naval career ended in July 1951.[32][33]

With the King in ill health, Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh were each appointed to the Privy Council on 4 November 1951 (making the Duke now the only remaining member of the council to have been appointed by George VI), after having made a coast to coast tour of Canada.[34] At the end of January the following year, Philip and his wife set out on a tour of the Commonwealth. On 6 February 1952, when they were in Kenya, Elizabeth's father died and she ascended the throne. It was Philip who broke the news of her father's passing to Elizabeth at Sagana Lodge, and the royal party immediately returned to the United Kingdom.[35]

[edit] Consort of the Queen

The Duke of Edinburgh with Queen Elizabeth II. Coronation portrait, June 1953.

[edit] Royal house

The accession of Elizabeth to the throne brought up the question of the name of the royal house. The Duke's uncle, Louis Mountbatten, advocated the name House of Mountbatten, as Elizabeth would typically have taken Philip's last name on marriage; however, when Queen Mary, Elizabeth's paternal grandmother, heard of this suggestion, she informed the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who himself later advised the Queen to issue a royal proclamation declaring that the royal house was to remain known as the House of Windsor. The Duke complained, "I am nothing but a bloody amoeba. I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."[36] Only in 1960, after the death of Queen Mary and the resignation of Churchill, was an Order-in-Council issued that stated the surname of male-line descendants of the Duke and the Queen who are not styled as Royal Highness, or titled as Prince or Princess, was to be Mountbatten-Windsor. In practice, the Duke's children have all used Mountbatten-Windsor as the surname they prefer for themselves when not using a name derived from their highest titles (i.e., Wales, York, or Wessex); similarly, his male-line grandchildren use names of the areas over which their fathers hold title.[37] After her accession to the throne, the Queen also announced that the Duke was to have "place, pre-eminence and precedence" next to her "on all occasions and in all meetings, except where otherwise provided by Act of Parliament". This meant the Duke took precedence over his son, the Prince of Wales, except, officially, in the British parliament. In fact, however, he only attends the British parliament when escorting the Queen for the annual State Opening of Parliament, where he walks and is seated beside her.

[edit] Duties and milestones

As consort to the Queen, Philip supported his wife in her new duties as Sovereign, accompanying her to ceremonies such as the State Opening of Parliament in various countries, state dinners, and tours abroad. As Chairman of the Coronation Commission, he was the first member of the royal family to fly in a helicopter, visiting the troops that were to take part in the ceremony.[38] Philip was not crowned in the service, but knelt before Elizabeth, with her hands enclosing his, and swore to be her "liege man of life and limb".[39]

In the early 1950s, his sister-in-law, Princess Margaret, considered marrying a divorced older man, Peter Townsend. The press accused Philip of being hostile to the match. "I haven't done anything," he complained. Philip had not interfered, preferring to stay out of other people's love lives.[40] Eventually, Margaret and Townsend parted. For six months over 1953–54 Philip and Elizabeth toured the Commonwealth, again their children were left in Britain.[41]

In 1956, the Duke founded the Duke of Edinburgh's Award with Kurt Hahn, in order to give young people "a sense of responsibility to themselves and their communities". From 1956 to 1957, Philip travelled around the world aboard the newly commissioned HMY Britannia, during which he opened the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne; was appointed to the Queen's Privy Council for Canada on 14 October, taking his Oath of Allegiance before the Queen in person at her Canadian residence, Rideau Hall;[42] and visited the Antarctic. The Queen and the children remained in Britain. On the return leg of the journey, Philip's private secretary, Mike Parker, was sued for divorce by his wife. As with Townsend, the press still portrayed divorce as a scandal, and eventually Parker resigned. He later said that the Duke was very supportive and "the Queen was wonderful throughout. She regarded divorce as a sadness, not a hanging offence."[43] Further press reports claimed that the Queen and the Duke were drifting apart, which enraged the Duke and dismayed the Queen, who issued a strongly worded denial.[44] In a show of public support, the Queen created Parker a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, and created her husband a Prince of the United Kingdom, restoring the title of Prince that he had formally rescinded ten years earlier.[45]

Philip in 1962.
Photograph by Tony French

Philip is patron of some 800 organisations, particularly focused on the environment, industry, sport, and education. He served as UK President of the World Wildlife Fund from 1961 to 1982, International President from 1981 and President Emeritus from 1996. He is patron of The Work Foundation, was President of the International Equestrian Federation from 1964 to 1986, and has served as Chancellor of the Universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Salford, and Wales.[46]

Visiting Canada in 1969, Philip spoke about his views on republicanism:

It is a complete misconception to imagine that the monarchy exists in the interests of the monarch. It doesn't. It exists in the interests of the people. If at any time any nation decides that the system is unacceptable, then it is up to them to change it.[47]

At the beginning of 1981, Philip wrote to his eldest son, Charles, counselling him to make up his mind to either propose to Lady Diana Spencer, or break off their courtship.[48] Charles felt pressured by his father to make a decision, and did so, proposing to Diana in February. They married six months later.[49] By 1992, the marriage had broken down. The Queen and Philip hosted a meeting between Charles and Diana, trying to get them reconciled but without success.[50] Philip wrote to Diana, expressing his disappointment at both Charles's and her extramarital affairs, and asking her to examine both his and her behaviour from the other's point of view.[51] The Duke was direct, and Diana was sensitive.[52] She found the letters hard to take, but she nevertheless appreciated that he was acting with good intent.[53] Charles and Diana separated and later divorced.

A year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. At the time, the Duke was on holiday at Balmoral with the extended royal family. In their grief, Diana's two sons, Princes William and Harry, wanted to attend church, and so their grandparents took them that morning.[54] For five days, the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the ensuing press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private.[54] The Royal Family's seclusion caused public dismay,[54] but the public mood was transformed from hostility to respect by a live broadcast made by the Queen on 5 September.[55] Uncertain as to whether they should walk behind her coffin during the funeral procession, Diana's sons hesitated.[55] Philip told William, "If you don't walk, I think you'll regret it later. If I walk, will you walk with me?"[55] On the day of the funeral, Philip, William, Harry, Charles and Diana's brother, Earl Spencer, walked through London behind the carriage carrying her casket.

Over the next few years Mohammed Al-Fayed, whose son Dodi Fayed was also killed in the crash, claimed that Prince Philip had ordered the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, and that the accident was staged. The inquest into Diana's death concluded in 2008 that there was "no evidence" of a conspiracy.[56]

[edit] Later life

Prince Philip looking at City Hall in London, November 2008

During the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 2002, the Duke was commended by the Speaker of the British House of Commons for his role in supporting the Queen during her reign. The Duke of Edinburgh's time as royal consort exceeds that of any other consort in British history, however his mother-in-law, who died aged 101, was the consort with the longest lifespan.

The Duke carries out over 300 public engagements a year, more than any other royal except his daughter, Princess Anne.[57] It was revealed in October 2007 that Prince Philip had been suffering from a heart condition since 1992; bodyguards protecting the Duke were trained to rush him to medical attention for symptoms as simple as dizziness and shortness of breath, even against Philip's own wishes. Though he started to take medication for the condition, the Duke refused to reduce his royal duties. In April 2008, Philip was admitted to the King Edward VII Hospital for "assessment and treatment" for a chest infection, though he walked into the hospital unaided and recovered quickly,[58] and was released three days later to recuperate at Windsor Castle.[59]

In August 2008, the Evening Standard newspaper reported that Philip was suffering from prostate cancer.[60] Buckingham Palace, which usually refuses to comment on rumours of ill health, claimed that the report was an invasion of privacy. Unusually, Philip authorised a statement denying the story.[61] The newspaper retracted the report, and admitted it was untrue.[62]

[edit] Personality and image

Her Majesty the Queen at Breakfast painted by Philip, 1957. Robert Lacey described the painting as "a tender portrayal, impressionistic in style, with brushstrokes that are charmingly soft and fuzzy".[63]

Philip played polo until 1971, when he started to compete in carriage driving, a sport which he helped expand; the early rule book was drafted under his supervision.[64] He was a keen yachtsman, striking up a friendship in 1949 with Uffa Fox in Cowes. He and the Queen regularly attended Cowes Week in HMY Britannia. His first airborne flying lesson took place in 1952; by his 70th birthday he had accrued 5,150 pilot hours.[65] He has painted with oils, and collected artworks, including contemporary cartoons, which hang at Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Sandringham House, and Balmoral Castle. Hugh Casson described Philip's own artwork as "exactly what you'd expect ... totally direct, no hanging about. Strong colours, vigorous brushstrokes."[66]

Over his sixty years as royal consort, Philip became notorious for making remarks which were regarded as offensive and/or based on stereotypes.[67][68] Some of them were immediately interpreted as gaffes; but other awkward observations were construed as merely odd, off-colour, or occasionally even funny.[69][70][71] In his own words, comments attributed to Prince Philip have contributed to the perception that he is "a cantankerous old sod".[72] For example, in May 1999 British newspapers accused Philip of insulting deaf children at a pop concert in Wales by saying, "No wonder you are deaf listening to this row."[73] Later Philip wrote, "the story is largely invention. It so happens that my mother was quite seriously deaf and I have been Patron of the Royal National Institute for the Deaf for ages, so it's hardly likely that I would do any such thing."[74]

[edit] Titles, styles, honours and arms

Standard

Philip has held a number of titles throughout his life. Originally holding the title and style of a prince of Greece and Denmark, Philip renounced these royal titles before his marriage, and was thereafter created as a British duke, amongst other noble titles. It was not, however, until the Queen issued Letters Patent in 1957 that Philip was again titled as a prince. When in conversation with the Duke of Edinburgh, the practice is to initially address him as Your Royal Highness and thereafter as Sir.

[edit] Honours and honorary military appointments

Upon his wife's accession to the throne in 1952, the Duke of Edinburgh was appointed Admiral of the Sea Cadet Corps, Colonel-in-Chief of the British Army Cadet Force, and Air Commodore-in-Chief of the Air Training Corps.[75] The following year, he was appointed to the equivalent positions in Canada, and made Admiral of the Fleet, Field Marshal, and Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the United Kingdom.[76] Subsequent military appointments were made throughout the Commonwealth.[77]

Before he became consort, the Duke was appointed to the Order of the Garter on 19 November 1947. Since then, Philip has received 17 different appointments and decorations in the Commonwealth, and 48 by foreign states. The inhabitants of some small villages in Vanuatu also worship Prince Philip as a god; the islanders possess portraits of the Duke and hold feasts on his birthday.[78]

[edit] Arms

[edit] Ancestry

Philip is currently the oldest living great-great grandchild of Queen Victoria, as well as her second-oldest living descendant after Prince Carl Johan of Sweden. As such, he is in the line of succession to the thrones of 16 countries, as well as being 21st in the line of succession to the headship of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.

Through mitochondrial DNA analysis in July 1993, British scientists, through a sample of Prince Philip's blood, were able to identify the remains of several members of Empress Alexandra of Russia's family, several decades after their 1918 massacre by the Bolsheviks. Prince Philip was then one of three living great-grandchildren in the female line of Alexandra's mother Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the others being his sister Sophie (who died in 2001) and his niece Princess Margarita of Baden.

[edit] Issue

Name Birth Marriage Issue
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales 14 November 1948 29 July 1981
Divorced 28 August 1996
Lady Diana Spencer Prince William of Wales
Prince Harry of Wales
9 April 2005 Camilla Parker-Bowles
Princess Anne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 14 November 1973
Divorced 28 April 1992
Mark Phillips Peter Phillips
Zara Phillips
12 December 1992 Timothy Laurence
Prince Andrew, Duke of York 19 February 1960 23 July 1986
Divorced 30 May 1996
Sarah Ferguson Princess Beatrice of York
Princess Eugenie of York
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 10 March 1964 19 June 1999 Sophie Rhys-Jones Lady Louise Windsor
James, Viscount Severn

[edit] Fictional portrayals

Actor James Cromwell portrayed Prince Philip in the 2006 Academy Award-winning film, The Queen.

David Threlfall played him in the 2005 British TV Movie The Queen's Sister.

A fictionalised Philip (in his capacity as a World War II naval officer) is a minor character in John Birmingham's Axis of Time series of alternate history novels. Prince Philip also appears as a fictional character in Nevil Shute's 1952 novel, In the Wet.

Prince Philip is a minor character in Tom Clancy's novel Patriot Games.

[edit] Bibliography

Forewords to:

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ He was born 10 June 1921 according to the Gregorian calendar. However, at that time, Greece was still using the Julian calendar; it did not convert to the Gregorian until 1 March 1923. His birth certificate shows the Julian date of 28 May 1921.[2]
  2. ^ In 1957, it was established by a ruling in Attorney-General vs. HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover [1957] 1 All ER 49, that all descendants of Sophia of Hanover, including Philip, were already naturalised British subjects under the terms of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Bell, Lynne (2007), Queen and Consort: Elizabeth and Philip - 60 Years of Marriage, Dundurn Press, p. 83, ISBN 1550027255 
  2. ^ Higham, Charles; Mosely, Roy (1991), Elizabeth and Philip: The Untold Story, Sidgwick & Jackson, p. 73, ISBN 0283998873 
  3. ^ "Prince Philip breaks royal record". Nine News. 18 April 2009. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/world/803155/prince-philip-marks-57-years-as-consort. Retrieved 18 April 2009. 
  4. ^ Brandreth, p. 56
  5. ^ Brandreth, pp. 58–59
  6. ^ "News in Brief: Prince Andrew's Departure", The Times: 12, 5 December 1922 
  7. ^ Heald, p. 31; Vickers, pp. 176–178
  8. ^ a b Rocco, Fiammetta (13 December 1992). "A strange life: Profile of Prince Philip". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/a-strange-life-profile-of-prince-philip-1563268.html. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  9. ^ Heald, p. 38
  10. ^ Heald, p. 34. Fellow pupils at the school included Princess Anne de Bourbon, who later married King Michael of Romania.
  11. ^ Heald, pp. 35–39
  12. ^ Brandreth, p. 66; Vickers, p. 205
  13. ^ Brandreth, p. 67
  14. ^ Prince Philip quoted in Brandreth, p. 72.
  15. ^ Brandreth, p. 72; Heald, p. 42
  16. ^ a b c d Naval career, Official website of the British Monarchy, http://www.royal.gov.uk/ThecurrentRoyalFamily/TheDukeofEdinburgh/Navalcareer.aspx, retrieved 7 May 2010 
  17. ^ Heald, p. 60
  18. ^ Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) officers 1939-1945 - M, Unithistories.com, http://www.unithistories.com/officers/RNR_officersM.html, retrieved 12 October 2008 
  19. ^ Brandreth, p. 154; Heald, p. 66
  20. ^ Smith, David (28 December 2003), "Prince Philip's war heroics come to light after 60 years", Guardian (London), http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2003/dec/28/monarchy.davidsmith, retrieved 12 October 2008 
  21. ^ Brandreth, pp. 155–163; Heald, pp. 66–67
  22. ^ HMS Whelp, destroyer, Naval-history.net, http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-10DD-63W-Whelp.htm, retrieved 12 October 2008 
  23. ^ Brandreth, p. 176
  24. ^ Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia quoted in Heald, p. 57
  25. ^ Brandreth, pp. 132–136, 166–168
  26. ^ Brandreth, p. 183
  27. ^ Heald, p. 77
  28. ^ London Gazette: no. 38128, p. 5495, 21 November 1947.
  29. ^ Heald, p. 86
  30. ^ Heald, p. 94
  31. ^ Heald, p. 95
  32. ^ The Duke of Edinburgh > Military involvement, Official website of the British Monarchy, http://www.royal.gov.uk/ThecurrentRoyalFamily/TheDukeofEdinburgh/Militaryinvolvement.aspx, retrieved 7 May 2010 
  33. ^ Heald, p. 97
  34. ^ The Duke of Edinburgh > Marriage and family, Buckingham Palace, http://www.royal.gov.uk/ThecurrentRoyalFamily/TheDukeofEdinburgh/Marriageandfamily.aspx, retrieved 18 October 2008 
  35. ^ Brandreth, pp. 245–247
  36. ^ Brandreth, p.253–254
  37. ^ Princes William and Harry of Wales adopted Wales as their de facto surname whilst schoolboys, and continue to use it in the military where they are each known as Lt. Wales, as shown on their flight suits. Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie of York likewise adopted York as their de facto surname whilst at school.
  38. ^ Brandreth, p.259
  39. ^ Brandreth, p.263
  40. ^ Brandreth, p.270
  41. ^ Brandreth, p.278
  42. ^ Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002), Fifty Years the Queen, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 12, ISBN 1-55002-360-8, http://books.google.com/?id=w8l5reK7NjoC&printsec=frontcover&q= 
  43. ^ Quoted in Brandreth, p.287
  44. ^ Brandreth, p.288
  45. ^ Brandreth, pp.287, 289
  46. ^ The Duke of Edinburgh: Public Work, Official website of the British Monarchy, http://www.royal.gov.uk/ThecurrentRoyalFamily/TheDukeofEdinburgh/Publicwork.aspx, retrieved 24 July 2010 
  47. ^ Brandreth, p.50
  48. ^ Brandreth, p.344
  49. ^ Brandreth, p.346
  50. ^ Brandreth, pp.348–349
  51. ^ Brandreth, pp.349–351
  52. ^ Brandreth, p.351
  53. ^ Brandreth, pp.351–353
  54. ^ a b c Brandreth, p.358
  55. ^ a b c Brandreth, p.359
  56. ^ "Duke 'did not order Diana death'". BBC News. 31 March 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7322204.stm. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  57. ^ English, Rebecca (26 October 2007), "Fears for Prince Philip's health as secret heart condition is revealed", Daily Mail, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=489841&in_page_id=1770&ICO=NEWS&ICL=TOPART, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  58. ^ Duke of Edinburgh is in hospital, BBC, 4 April 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7333280.stm, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  59. ^ Prince discharged from hospital, BBC, 6 April 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7330697.stm, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  60. ^ Carmichael, Sri (6 August 2008), "Philip defies prostate scare", Evening Standard, http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23527545-details/Philip+defies+prostate+scare/article.do 
  61. ^ Statement From Buckingham Palace Following the Evening Standard's Story Entitled 'Prince Philip Defies Cancer Scare', Buckingham Palace, 6 August 2008, http://www.royal.gov.uk/LatestNewsandDiary/Pressreleases/2008/STATEMENTFROMBUCKINGHAMPALACEFOLLOWINGTHEEVENINGST.aspx, retrieved 20 April 2010 
  62. ^ "HRH The Duke of Edinburgh: Apology", Evening Standard, 8 August 2008, http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23529084-hrh-the-duke-of-edinburgh-apology.do, retrieved 20 April 2010 
  63. ^ Lacey, p. 368
  64. ^ Heald, pp. 212–214
  65. ^ Heald, pp. 148–149
  66. ^ Heald, p. 253
  67. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Caught on tape: Infamous gaffes, News.bbc.co.uk, 19 September 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5360412.stm, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  68. ^ Tim Blair (23 May 2008), Prince Philip right to have a dig at Durie | NEWS.com.au, News.com.au, http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23745347-5007146,00.html, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  69. ^ AM - Prince Philip reminded of blunders on his 85th birthday, Abc.net.au, http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2006/s1660067.htm, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  70. ^ Naysmith, Stephen (23 April 2000), The Ssecret Life of Prince Philip | Sunday Herald, The | Find Articles at BNET, Findarticles.com, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20000423/ai_n13948104, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  71. ^ Duggan, Paul, Prince Philip Has a Mouthful Of a Title. And, Often, His Foot. - washingtonpost.com, Washingtonpost.com, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/05/AR2007050500981_pf.html, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  72. ^ Prince Philip quoted in Brandreth, p. 7
  73. ^ Brandreth, p. 46
  74. ^ Letter of 4 June 1999 quoted in Brandreth, p. 46 [1]
  75. ^ Heald, p. 111
  76. ^ Heald, pp. 264–267
  77. ^ Brandreth, pp. 407–408; Heald, pp. 264–267
  78. ^ Squires, Nick (10 June 2007), Is Prince Philip an island god?, London: BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/6734469.stm, retrieved 2008-10-12 
  79. ^ britishflags.net

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